Status of Jatropha in Africa
Map Depicting Suitable Areas for Jatropha Cultivation in Africa
In a survey conducted by Dr. Guy Midgley, Chief Specialist Scientist of the Kirstenbosch Research Center of of the South African National Biodiversity Institute (Cape Town) over 1,080 million hectares land in Africa could be termed prime growing regions for Jatropha curcas on the African continent. A further 580 million hectares could be used making a total of 1,660 million hectares suitable for the growing of Jatropha.
On the map of Africa the dark areas represent prime Jatropha growing regions in Africa. These areas, comprising over 1,080 million hectares, or 10.8 million square kilometers, are ideal because the average annual rainfall exceeds 800 mm, and the minimum temperature of the coldest month is greater than 2oC.
The light green areas of the map are areas with average annual rainfall in excess of 300 mm, with the minimum temperature of the coldest month greater than 2 degrees centigrade. These areas, comprising over 580 million hectares, or 5.8 million square kilometers, are also viable regions for growing Jatropha.
Since 2005, nearly 300,000 hectares of planned production projects have been established in more than four African nations.
The one advantage that Zambia has, being a land-locked country, is that import parity of fuel into Zambia certainly is more expensive than inSouth Africa, and a driving force there to establish biofuel production is higher in Zambia than what it would be in South Africa.
- The Omnia group has made an investment of some R29-million into research on Jatropha agronomics inZambia. Omnia would continue to spend the necessary capital on research in this field on an ongoing basis (27 Jun 2008).
- Oval Biofuels, a biofuels company in Zambia is currently establishing large scale Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) plantations in several areas in central, western and southern Zambia.
- Jatropha Hamburg is planning for 250.000 hectares of Jatropha plantation. A report mentions that 100 ha of Jatropha are already planted to deliver seeds for the extension of the industrial plantations.
- UNDP extends it project MFP (multi functional platforms) to Ghana(2008).
- Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology, Kumasii, Ghana and Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom initiated a project for Jatropha Energy Development for rural communities in Ghana (2008).
- Ghana is now planning a 12,000 hectare project with South Africa-based BD-1 Group. Ghana has also received interest in Jatropha production from Petrobras, EniSpA, Entaban and Juanx Lioret (2008).
- A two million-euro Jatropha project to produce bio-energy at Walewale in the northern part of Ghana has been launched by the European Union. The five-year project would use unfertile lands in the area to cultivate Jatropha plants and process the seeds to obtain crude oil and its by-products. The project would develop the marketing of primary and secondary products of Jatropha and the setting up of community-based organisations and micro-enterprises to reduce poverty. In addition, he said, the project would realize direct desertification mitigation actions in the target areas by using drought resistant species with a high market value. (Oct 2010)
Mozambique is widely seen as having the largest potential for Jatropha production. The International Energy Agency estimated thatMozambiquecould produce nearly 3 million barrels of oil a day of liquid biofuels from non-food crop resources such as Jatropha. In Mozambique, three significant projects were announced during 2006-2007.
- Canadian-based Energem Resources has invested $5.5 million (4 million) in its first small plantation with near future commitments to cultivate 60,000 hectares. (2008)
- South African-based Duelco Renewable Energy has established Mozambique partnerships around a 60,000 hectare plantation and ESV-Bio Africa is currently managing an 11,000 hectare plantation with plans for 100,000 hectares.(2008)
- A biofuel refinery is being planned for development in the Buzi district of Sofala province in Mozambique within the next ten years by Buzi Company of Mozambique and Galpenergia of Portugal. At least €100,000 annually is needed to fund the project. At least 8,000 hectares of sunflower and Jatropha are planned be planted to produce around 5,000 tons of seeds needed for the biofuel manufacture. Galpbuzi has reportedly planted 150 hectares of Jatropha and 25 hectares of sunflower in the locality of Bandua, Buzi. (July 2009)
- The Mozambican Government has approved two biofuel production projects for the province of Sofala, central Mozambique. The Council of Ministers also approved a concession for Enerterra, a company made up of private Mozambican and Portuguese investors, of 18,920 hectares in the district of Cheringoma, Sofala province, for Jatropha production. Enerterra plans to invest US$53 million in biofuel production, 90% of which will be exported to Europeand 10% sold in Mozambique.(Aug 2009)
- Sun Biofuels, a British company, has been planting thousands of acres of Jatropha at a former tobacco farm in Africa. Mozambique only cultivates 20 percent of its arable land, one of the lowest cultivation rates in Africa. Sun Biofuels argues there should be room for all sorts of farming, particularly ones that bring education and employment (Apr 2010).
- USAID (United States Agency for International Development) is supporting agricultural extension and the commercialisation of Jatropha inclusive of the production of biodiesel. Agricultural extension is forging ahead in Madagascar where more than 500,000 ha of cultivation is in place.
- UK-based feedstock supplier GEM BioFuels has raised £3.5 million (€5 million) for use in expanding its Jatropha plantations in Madagascar and to acquire a seed crushing plant to produce crude Jatropha oil. The company has entered into 18 long term land agreements with Madagascan communes in relation to 452,500 hectares to establish plantations, ranging in size from 2,500 - 50,000 hectares with a further 40,000 hectares of natural forest containing substantial numbers of mature Jatropha trees Biodiesel producer GEM Biofuels will ship its first Jatropha oil exports from Madagascar before the end of 2009, according to the company. (Oct 2009)
- The Malawi government is facilitating the implementation of a number of private-sector-driven projects to set up biodiesel production plants in the country. Government is prioritising production of biofuels from Jatropha because the plant is rated more highly than maize and rice as far as oil production is concerned. The companies that are at an advanced stage in the process to start production of biodiesel from Jatropha include a consortium comprising Netherlands-based TNT Group and some African investors, which is reportedly preparing to set up a $12-million biodisel production plant in the capital, Lilongwe. (Jun 08)
One of the best examples of a sustainable usage of Jatropha is found in the West African country of Mali. The Jatropha program in Malibegan in 1993 with German Technical Assistance.
- A Dutch-backed start-up in Mali could be the first in Africa to produce biodiesel from Jatropha on an industrial scale. The company is not relying on new plantations to source its raw material instead it is buying up Jatropha nuts already available from the estimated 20,000km of living Jatropha fences that cover other crops and stop soil erosion in Mali. (Oct, 2007)
- Eco-Carbone, international pharmaceutical company and rural communities, a dynamic Malian agro-business, have established a joint venture to adopt sustainable agro-forestry practices through Jatropha curcas plantations. A total of about 12,000 ha of Jatropha plantations will be developed under the project, producing about 10,000 T of Jatropha oil each year at full capacity and sequestering 600,000 T CO2e by 2012 and over 800,000 T CO2e by 2017.
- The National Oil Company of Zimbabwe has contracted about 300 small-scale Jatropha growers and provided them with over 30 million seedlings to grow 1000 ha of the crop during the past two seasons communal, and farmers had taken over 99 percent of all produced seedlings during the past two seasons, which most of them grew as hedges (September 2009)
- Tanzanian activists oppose Jatropha-based biofuel production: Environmental activists in Tanzania’s Coast Region have raised concern over the planned large-scale cultivation of Jatropha for biofuel production, saying it would lead to environmental degradation. (May 2008).
- InTanzania, the US Government has granted $5.4 million to the Tanzanian government for a project to establish a model for Jatropha farming in the country. The grant was provided under the Jatropha Agriculture and Nutrition Initiative (JANI) project of theUSdevelopment agency. (August 2009)
- Within the national programme for safe use of treated sewage water for afforestation, planting Jatropha has been achieved in Upper Egypt (Luxor Governorate) by using treated sewage water.
- The Egyptian state reported that Cairo was currently looking into the expansion of the cultivation of the Jatropha plant as a means of producing biofuels. 200 feddans (84 hectares) in the Red Sea province of Hurghada would be planted with Jatropha. The country is looking into the possibility of getting assistance on the project from Japan.(Aug 2009)
- Introduction to the Biofuel Industry
- Properties of Jatropha
- Characteristics of Jatropha
- Extracting Jatropha Oil
- Pre-extraction of Jatropha Oil
- Extraction of Oil from Jatropha Seed
- Filtration & Purification of Jatropha Oil
- Clarification of the Oil
- Getting Clean Jatropha Oil
- Refining the pure Oil
- Typical Processes & Equipments for Jatropha Oil Refinery Plants
- Removing the toxins from the Meal
- Uses of Jatropha Meal
- Properties of Jatropha Oil
- Global Biodiesel Production and Capacity
- Global Market View on Jatropha
- Strategies for Financing
- Status of Jatropha in Asia
- Status of Jatropha in Europe
- Status of Jatropha in Africa
- Status of Jatropha in South America
- Status of Jatropha in North America
- Status of Jatropha Oil Production in India
- Genetic Engineering in Jatropha
- Status of Genetic Engineering of Jatropha in India
- Present Market Scenario for Jatropha